Tag Archives: inflation
Before going on any further it is necessary to discuss the term aggregate demand.
Aggregate demand is the sum of two components – investment spending and consumer spending. It would be better if these were treated separately as independent channels through which money flows, since the relation between them is by no means constant in the sense that they can be lumped together and boosted or damped down together. ... Read more
Real wage and material living standard will be treated as different terms for the same variable.
The real wage, however, is not the same as the money wage. The real wage is the access to goods and services given to a worker in exchange for their labour. ... Read more
The inadequate or wrong concepts of current economics lead to a number of misconceptions, some examples of which will be given.
“Soak the Rich”
The “soak the rich” taxation policy sometimes advocated or practiced by the political left is based on a confusion about the nature of wealth. ... Read more
The direct addition of value inflation to the rate of price increases is quite small. The larger effect arises from secondary influences, in whose shaping human psychology plays an important part. These influences are triggered by the small value inflation component and its corollary, a slowing of the rate of net throughput increase relative to gross throughput increase. ... Read more
People are agents of throughput and the younger, healthier and less resistant to change are the people (for a given population, state of technology, and resource availability), then the larger and better quality the throughput they can achieve.
In more perfluent countries, in recent years, several factors have combined to effect a steady increase in the average age of the population. ... Read more
Public sector employment and transfer payments are limited by the amount of revenue which can be raised, which in turn is limited by how much the private sector can provide without ceasing to be viable, or how much can be borrowed without creating a “deficit bomb”. ... Read more
Another indirect adverse effect of environmental degradation on economic well-being arises from the effect of the degradation on people’s perception of their economic condition.
A further illustration of the erroneously perceived conflict between environmental conservation and economic well-being lies in this frequent reaction to some piece of environmental devastation: “Oh, well, at least it creates jobs for some people who wouldn’t have one otherwise.”
Certainly the degradation will keep some people busy for a while, but because of the depletion of the resource on which their jobs depend, there will be a net loss of jobs. ... Read more
Throughput of resources, a first derivative of wealth, is of two kinds, gross and net. Net throughput is the flow of goods and services in the economy. Gross throughput is net throughput plus the resources required to extract and process wealth into these goods and services. ... Read more
During the 1970’s and 1980’s governments and people generally in the more perfluent nations were waiting for an economic “upturn” or “recovery” to reduce what had become chronic high unemployment. The underlying assumption was that the high throughput-increase rates, the so-called “economic growth” rates of the 1950’s and 1960’s, were normal and that the more sluggish throughput-increase (TI) rates of latter years were an abnormal phenomenon that could be expected to speed up in time through this or that brilliant policy initiative or going back to the early economics of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; or by eliminating (depending on your point of view) businessmen, unions, migrants, taxes, civil servants, or computers; or just by waiting. ... Read more
A subtle, indirect but nevertheless important further way in which environmental depletion damages economic health is through the extinction of species.
A particular species may not be throughput directly in the sense that a particular economic activity is based directly on that species. ... Read more