Structuring, or realising, wealth into goods and services is currently called production or output, as though wealth were being created. In fact, this structuring or realisation is part of the process of throughput of wealth.

The use of goods and services, now called consumption in the sense of being opposite to “production”, is really a subsequent process in the throughput chain whereby wealth is degraded into waste matter and heat whence it may be renewed.

For example, fresh clean water is degraded into dirty water whence it can evaporate and fall again as clean rain, or else be filtered or cleansed by natural or human processes to become clean water again.

In both types of renewal the throughput of some other form of wealth is involved. The first requires solar radiation; the second needs clean earth or some other filter, healthy organisms, or chemicals.

As another example, the burning of fuel produces carbon dioxide that nourishes plants, which in turn can directly or indirectly become fuel again. In this case the renewal process involves the throughput of topsoil, nutrients, and fuel.

Renewal need not always be back to the original resource, i.e., wealth-form. It may be sufficient and even preferable to go back only as far as an earlier stage of the throughput chain. This applies to metals. Impure corroded metals from used-up metal articles may be recycled back to a state of purer metal ready for restructuring into new articles. This renewal requires the throughput of fuel and other resources.

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